Livelihood Practices in Transnational Space (A Case Study of Family Left Behind in Nepal)
Migration has become an essential livelihood practice for individuals from both the poor and the relatively well-off households due, mainly to the processes of urbanization and globalization. This paper trace the impacts of migration on livelihood practices by drawing on the outcome of field studies in Garuda Municipality compromising multiethnic people of Eastern Nepal. The methodology for identifying informant is social survey followed by in-depth interview followed by semi-structured questionnaire and time line interview, examining the variation among social, economic, educational and employment nature before and after the migration. This comparison shows considerable changes among livelihood practices adopted by migrants family. Migration involves a large network of social relations. These networks involve exchanges of salient ideas, practices, and resources not only among migrants and non-migrants but also within the migrants and non-migrants themselves. Migrants remit and support their family back home by remitting not only money but also a new culture that he/she encounter in the place of migration. These exchanges can be gauged in the daily activities of non-migrants left behind. The family left behind disengage themselves from traditional occupation such as livestock and cereal farming and engage in new cash generating activities such as stitching, embroidery, handicrafts, and so on. The stay-behind family especially, wives become almost solely responsible not only for raising and educating their children but also for managing household’s chores as well as performing activities that link the household with the world outside. Thus, migration provides ground for nurturing a woman’s autonomy, self-esteem as also to expand their roles as they take on additional non-domestic tasks.